The Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was one of the greatest leaders in world history. Dr. King led a nonviolent movement in the late 1950’s-60’s to achieve legal equality and economic justice for African Americans in the United States.
A timeline of key events in the life of Dr. King follows:
1929 – Born on Jan. 15, 1929, in Atlanta, GA, Dr. Martin Luther King was the son, grandson, and great-grandson of Baptist ministers. Named Michael King at birth, King was renamed “Martin” when he was about 6 years old. His father, Martin Luther King Sr., pastor of Ebenezer Baptist Church, and his mother, Alberta (Williams) King, a former schoolteacher, shared the Auburn Avenue home where Dr. King spent his early years with his maternal grandparents, the Rev. Adam Daniel Williams and Jeannie Celeste Williams.
1944-48 – King attends Morehouse College, majoring in sociology. Reluctant to follow his calling, he was ordained during his final semester.
1951 – King began doctoral studies in systematic theology at Boston University’s School of Theology. It was during his time in the Boston area where he met met and courted Coretta Scott, an Alabama-born Antioch College graduate who was then a student at the New England Conservatory of Music. They married 2 years later.
1955 – Dr. King received his doctorate from Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, PA. He became pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, AL, making his first mark on the civil-rights movement by mobilizing the black community during a 382-day boycott of the city’s bus lines. The U.S. Supreme Court ultimately declared bus segregation unconstitutional.
1957 – Dr. King laid the groundwork for the organization now known as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). He was elected as its president, and he soon began helping other communities organize their own protests against discrimination.
1963 – In Birmingham, AL, during a non-violent protest for fair hiring practices and the desegregation of department-store facilities, police brutality used against the marchers dramatized the plight of blacks to the nation at large. Dr. King was arrested during the protest; he wrote“Letter from a Birmingham Jail” during his imprisonment. He then became a principal speaker at the historic March on Washington, where he delivered one of the most passionate addresses of his career. Time magazine designated him as its Person of the Year for 1963.
1964 – At 35 years old, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. became the youngest person to win the Nobel Peace Prize (see Dr. King’s original notes for his renowned Nobel Prize acceptance speech HERE). In Selma, Ala., he led a voter-registration campaign that ended in the Selma-to-Montgomery Freedom March. King next brought his crusade to Chicago, where he launched programs to rehabilitate the slums and provide housing.
Dr. King rallied behind a new cause: the war in Vietnam. Students, professors, intellectuals, clergymen and reformers then rushed into the movement. King also began to address poverty, in which he saw an integral connection to the cause of war. He called for a guaranteed family income, he threatened national boycotts, and he spoke of disrupting entire cities by non-violent “camp-ins.” With this in mind, he began to plan a massive march of the poor on Washington, D.C., envisioning a demonstration of such intensity and size that Congress would have to recognize and deal with the huge number of desperate and downtrodden Americans.
1968 – On April 4, 1968, Dr. Martin Luther king, Jr. was assassinated. He was standing outside on the balcony of the black-owned Lorraine Hotel in Memphis, with Jesse Jackson and Ralph Abernathy. The hotel is now the National Civil Rights Museum.
Today, we honor the legacy and memory of the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. with 7 of his quotes on racism, social change, and nonviolence:
- “Racism is a philosophy based on a contempt for life…It separates not only bodies, but minds and spirits. Inevitably, it descends to inflicting spiritual and physical homicide upon the out-group.”
“We are now faced with the fact that tomorrow is today. We are confronted with the fierce urgency of now…”
- “Ultimately a great nation is a compassionate nation. No individual or nation can be great if it does not have a concern for ‘the least of these.’”
- “A nation that continues year after year to spend more money on military defense [rather] than on programs of social uplift is approaching spiritual death.”
- “It is the arrogant assertion that one race is the center of value and object of devotion, before which other races must kneel in submission.”
“I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character.”
- “Darkness cannot drive out darkness; only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate, only love can do that.”
Image and quotes, courtesy of The King Center.org. (accessed January 17, 2016). http://www.thekingcenter.org/about-dr-king. See excerpts from the historic March on Washington below, courtesy of The History Channel.
The King Library and Archives in Atlanta is the largest repository of primary source materials on Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and the American Civil Rights Movement in the world. Significant records which document the social, cultural, economic and political impact of the civil rights movement are housed at the King Library and Archives, and are available online. See more at: http://www.thekingcenter.org/